Mineral benification

Introduction :

● After the development of inexpensive ore benification method, bulk mining practice has proved to be more economical compared to careful selective mining. 

● If increase the metal grade of the ore, first to increase the metal yield and the associated second advantage is to reduce the amount of gangue. Third advantage by increasing the metal grade of the ore is to decrease the thermal energy requirement. In order to separate metal from gangue in pyrometallurgical technique, because pyro means temperature, so the separation of metal from gangue occurs at high temperature. 

● So, the third benefit is to decrease the thermal energy requirement. The fourth benefit is that, you recall another route of metal extraction was hydrometallurgy their large amount of aqueous solution is need. So by increasing the grade of the metal, by increasing the metal grade of the ore, you will be able to decrease the aqueous solution requirement in hydromet route. So these are some of the benefits in increasing the metal grade of the ore, to increase the metal grade of the ore. 

● The first step, whether it is pyrometallurgical extraction or hydrometallurgical extraction, the first step is called mineral beneficiation. The objective of this step is to increase the metal grade of the ore, that we are very clear we have to increase the metal grade of the ore. Now this mineral processing technique, it requires two things. One is the liberation of the mineral and second is the concentration of the mineral. In general way the scope of mineral dressing or ore banification help in to ways.

1. To eliminate unwanted chemical species :  To prepare the ore particle from chemical stand point, primarily involves the following steps @

A. Liberation of dissimilar particles from each other appearing in the bulk ore.
B. Separation of chemically dissimilar particles.

Liberation :

Mineral processing by liberation
In order to separate the minerals from gangue, it is necessary to crush and grind the rock to unlock, or liberate, valuable minerals so that they are partially or fully exposed. This process of size reduction is called comminution. The crushing and grinding process will produce a range of particles with varying degrees of liberation. Any particles that exceed a target size required for physical separation or chemical extraction are returned to the crushing or the grinding circuit.

Comminution :

● It is termed as size reduction process of ore to a point where each mineral grain is practically free from other particles. So crushing has the objective to reduce the large lump in to smaller size. Depending upon the feed size comminution / crushing operation is 

1. Coarse crushing or primary crushing
2. IntermidiInt crushing or secondary
3. Fine crushing or coarse grinding
4. Fine grinding.
● The comminution process actually begins during the mining stage through the use explosives, excavators or scrapers for softer material. This is necessary in order to generate a material that is transportable by haul trucks or conveyors. 
Comminution minerals benification

● Comminution in the mineral processing plant is carried out in a sequential manner using crushers and screens followed by grinding mills and classifiers. The various types of comminution equipment including their general application are described in detail below.
Mechanism of Comminution :
The size reduction of solid in actual Patrice is quite complex, but can be attributed to the action of the following steps.
1. Compression or compressive forces as utilized in general crusher.
2. Impact force as utilized in hammer and ball mill.
3. Attrition or rubbing action as utilized in attrition and ball mill.
4. Cutting force as utilized in knief edge mills to reduce the size of the fibrous materials like mica, asbester etc.
Principle of comminution / crushing :
It is a generic term for size reduction. An ideal crusher or grinding should 
1. Have a large capacity.
2. Required a small input / unit weight of production.
3. Yield a product of single size or required size distribution.
The performance of the process is studied individually with respect to the ideal operating condition

@ jaw and gyratory crusher >> coarse crusher
@ crushing roll, cone and disc crusher >> intermediate crusher
@ ball mill >> fine crushing or coarse grinding
@ rod, pebble, tube, hammer mill >> fine grinding.

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